br c Biomedical and Health Informatics Rajaie Cardiovascular
c Biomedical and Health Informatics, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
d Neuroscience Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
e Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
f ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
g Health promotion research center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZaUMS), Zahedan, Iran
Positron emission tomography
The current interest in cancer research is being shifted from individual therapy to combinatorial therapy. In this contribution, a novel multifunctional nanoplatform comprising alginate nanogel co-loaded with cisplatin and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been firstly developed to combine photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. The antitumor eﬃcacy of the as-prepared nanocomplex was tested against CT26 colorectal tumor model. The na-nocomplex showed an improved chemotherapy eﬃcacy than free cisplatin and caused a significantly higher tumor inhibition rate. The in vivo thermometry results indicated that the tumors treated with the nanocomplex had faster temperature rise rate under 532 nm laser irradiation and received dramatically higher thermal doses due to optical Suramin hexasodium salt properties of AuNPs. The combined action of chemo-photothermal therapy using the nanocomplex dramatically suppressed tumor growth up to 95% of control and markedly prolonged the animal survival rate. Moreover, tumor metabolism was quantified by [18F]FDG (2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose)-po-sitron emission tomography (PET) imaging and revealed that the combination of the nanocomplex and laser irradiation have the potential to eradicate microscopic residual tumor to prevent cancer relapse. Therefore, the nanocomplex can aﬀord a potent anticancer eﬃcacy whereby heat and drug can be eﬀectively deliver to the tumor, and at the same time the high dose-associated side eﬀects due to the separate application of che-motherapy and thermal therapy could be potentially reduced.
Despite intensive eﬀorts to achieve an ideal strategy for cancer treatment, this disease still remains a serious health concern worldwide. Traditional cancer therapy methods including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have their own disadvantages which cannot yield satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In many cancer cases, complete re-section of the tumor lesions is often impossible since they are inter-twined with normal tissues . Chemotherapy encounters with serious limitations of drug resistance as a result of repeated drug administration as well as adverse side eﬀects due to unwanted accumulation of an-ticancer drug in healthy tissues . Likewise, radiotherapy is currently
insuﬃcient to destroy radioresistant hypoxic tumors and is also asso-ciated with radiation-induced side eﬀects .
It is generally proved that the eﬀect of certain treatments can be enhanced when combined with other modalities. Accordingly, a new trend is being emerged in clinical oncology to employ the combinatorial cancer treatment strategies in order to exploit the synergistic interac-tions that occur among diﬀerent treatments, resulting in much stronger therapeutic eﬀect than the separate use of individual therapies [4,5]. For example, hyperthermia has been widely utilized as an adjunct therapy to increase the tumor cells sensitivity to anticancer drug and X-ray radiation, thus potentiating the cytotoxic eﬀects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy . Therefore, the design and synthesis of hybrid
Corresponding authors at: Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZaUMS), Zahedan, Iran and Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (H. Ghaznavi), [email protected] (A. Shakeri-Zadeh).